What Is Collective Improvisation in Jazz Music?
A special issue of Organizational Science (Barrett & Peplowski, 1998) described Jazz as a highly structured activity with rules. Yet, some genres of Jazz have gone beyond those rules and even into forms without structure.
For the jazz neophyte (the primary audience for that special issue) this can sound chaotic. But, over emphasizing this chaos may limit the power of the jazz metaphor for innovation.
What is Collective Improvisation?
Collective improvisation is the simultaneous creation of musical ideas by multiple musicians in real-time. This is typically done by a jazz ensemble with a strong musical rapport. Musicians create new musical patterns, phrases, and solos by improvising on a previously composed tune or by spontaneously creating new music.
The improvisational process is complex and requires intense communication among members of the band. In addition to relying on their knowledge of musical scales, modes, and chord voicings, they also listen closely to the other musicians in the band to respond to each others’ musical ideas in real-time.
The improvisational process in Jazz is often described as “embellishment” or “variety on a theme.” It offers the flexibility of a network form of organization engaging in complex, structured conversations. While swing jazz is highly constrained improvisation, other genres such as bebop challenge the boundaries of harmonic structure while still acknowledging it. This extends the jazz metaphor beyond the limits cited in the special issue of Organizational Science on Jazz Improvisation and Organizing (Barrett & Peplowski, 1998).
How do Jazz musicians improvise?
The common perception of Jazz improvisation is that musicians make it up as they go along, playing whatever comes to mind. While this is not entirely false, it does not give the full picture of what it means to improvise in Jazz.
Rather than being a random free-for-all, Jazz musicians use their knowledge of musical scales and modes to respond to one another in real time. This requires a high level of creativity, skill and communication.
For example, the simple tune, “Weather Bird,” recorded by Armstrong and Hines in 1928 is an excellent example of collective improvisation. In this recording, Hines’ improvised line follows the melody closely and contributes to its harmonic structure.
Listeners can also hear the rhythm section reharmonizing and reworking their parts. The result is an improvised composition that integrates both Jazz composition and improvisation in an exciting and unique way. This combination of creativity and spontaneity is what makes Jazz unique.
What is the difference between a Jazz solo and a Classical solo?
Typically, the solo – an artist stepping up to improvise over a simple tune with a rhythm section backing them – is a key element of Jazz music. But, even in the earliest instances of Jazz recording, there’s an interesting texture that can be heard: collective improvisation.
In this musical context, the front line of 3 wind instruments – often trumpet (or cornet), clarinet and trombone – improvise together on a simple tune. The trumpet presents the melody, a clarinet weaves an improvised line that is characteristically more ornamental than the melody and a trombone provides a simpler counterline.
This approach has been a central feature of Jazz through the eras. While it’s not quite the same as the kind of improvisation found in Classical music, it still uses elements of structure to create unique music that challenges listeners’ ear but is well within their innate musical language. This is also what makes Jazz so popular with fans and musicians alike.
What is the role of the Rhythm Section in Jazz?
In jazz, there is usually one musician soloing at a time and the other musicians are supporting them (slang is “comping”). This type of musical improvisation is known as collective improvisation.
In early Jazz recordings, a musical texture emerges where multiple wind instruments improvise together. This is known as Collective Improvisation and it is very different to how Classical music is performed.
Rhythm section members are expected to play bass lines and chord voicings that suit the style of the song they are performing. They are also expected to match the phrasing of the horn players in their performance. This can be a difficult task for rhythm sections as the notation doesn’t always provide them with enough information to do this. For example, it is not always clear how many times to staccato a choked crash cymbal or when to crescendo through a held piano chord.
It is also important for the Rhythm section to keep in mind that the horns are improvising and the Rhythm section needs to react to this. This requires a high level of creativity and communication between the musicians.